The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and
dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the
white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the
Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the
National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.
Apart from non-statutory instructions issued by the Government from time to time, display of the National Flag is governed by the
provisions of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No. 12 of 1950) and the Prevention of Insults to National
Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971). The Flag Code of India, 2002 is an attempt to bring together all such laws, conventions, practices
and instructions for the guidance and benefit of all concerned.
The Flag Code of India, 2002, took effect from 26 January 2002 and superseded the 'Flag Code-Indias' as it existed. As per the
provisions of the Flag Code of India, 2002, there are no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of general public,
private organisations, educational institutions, etc., except to the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper
Use) Act, 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other law enacted on the subject.
The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the national bird of India. It is symbolic of qualities like beauty, grace, pride and
mysticism. Peacocok is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long,
slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular
bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers it is able to expand its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display. The female is
brownish, slightly smaller than the male, and lacks the train. These birds do not sound as beautiful as they look they have a harsh
call. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight.
The peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the south and east of the Indus river, Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam,
south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula. Found wild in India (and also domesticated in villages) they live in jungle
lands near water. They were once bred for food but now hunting of peacocks is banned in India.
The Peacock is depicted in picture with the company of Indian Gods and Goddesses. It is the sacred bird of the India, protected not
only by a religious sentiment but also by parliamentary statute. It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act,
Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art
and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity.
From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India
The National Tree of India is The Banyan Tree. This huge tree towers over its neighbors and has the widest reaching roots of all
known trees, easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots, so that one tree is really a tangle of branches,
roots, and trunks. The banyan tree regenerates and lives for an incredible length of time--thus it is thought of as the immortal tree.
Its size and leafy shelter are valued in India as a place of rest and reflection, not to mention protection from the hot sun! It is
still the focal point and gathering place for local councils and meetings. India has a long history of honoring this tree; it figures
prominently in many of the oldest stories of the nation.
The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct
versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by
observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in this information sheet for
general information and guidance.
The composition consisting of the words and music of the first stanza of the late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore's song known as
"Jana Gana Mana" is the National Anthem of India. It reads as follows :
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mange,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
Whenever the Anthem is sung or played, the audience shall stand to attention. However, when in the course of
a newsreel or documentary the Anthem is played as a part of the film, it is not expected of the audience to stand as standing is
bound to interrupt the exhibition of the film and would create disorder and confusion rather than add to the dignity of the
As in the case of the flying of the National Flag, it has been left to the good sense of the people not to
indulge in indiscriminate singing or playing of the Anthem.
The Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms of mountains, valleys and plains. It originates
in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the
Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gumti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin (External website that opens in a new window) is one of the most
fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an area of 1,000,000 sq. kms. There are two dams on the river - one at
Haridwar and the other at Farakka. The Ganges River Dolphin is an endangered animal that specifically habitats this river.
The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth. Key religious ceremonies are held on the banks of the river at cities
such as Varanasi, Haridwar and Allahabad. The Ganga widens out into the Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans swamp of Bangladesh, before it
ends its journey by emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back,
mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by
intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of
the Law (Dharma Chakra).
In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from
view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels
on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad,
meaning 'Truth Alone Triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.
The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted
from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes :
- Gazette of India,
- news broadcast by All India Radio,
- calendars issued by the Government of India and
- Government communications addressed to the members of the public.
Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22
March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of
grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races
of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and
also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, 'Project Tiger'
was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering an area of
37,761 sq km.
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their
struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896
session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza :
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram, Vande Mataram!
A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica, the mango is one of the most important and
widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100
varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial. The poet
Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Mughal emperor Akbar planted 100,000
mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh.
India has conquered the podium when it comes to the game of Hockey. Our nation has an excellent record with eight Olympic gold medals.
Indian hockey's golden period was from 1928-56, when the Indian hockey team won six successive Olympic gold medals. Team also won the
1975 World Cup besides two more medals (silver and a bronze). The Indian Hockey Federation (External website that opens in a new window)
gained global affiliation in 1927 and joined the International Hockey Federation (FIH) (External website that opens in a new window).
Thus began the history of Indian Hockey Federation as India entered the Olympics to begin its golden saga. The tour was a huge success
with India winning 18 out of the 21 matches and the legendary Dhyan Chand was the cynosure of all the eyes scoring over 100 goals of
the 192 Indian accounted for. The match began in Amsterdam in 1928 and India went on a winning spree in Los Angeles in 1932 and Berlin
in 1936 and thus bagged a hat-trick of gold medals at the Olympics.
Post Indian Independence; the Indian team achieved another hat-trick of gold medals at the 1948 London Olympics, 1952 Helsinki Games
and the Melbourne Olympics.
During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches, won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per match) and
conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India came in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics.