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Nelson Mandela, who is although seriously sick, is the one making decisions about his own fate, his daughter has said.The comments were made by Zindzi in a joint interview with mother, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, with British television ITN.They both were critical of public discussions about whether or not the family should keep the ailing Nobel peace laureate alive, news.com.au reports.

Health & Fitness
 

Frolicking on the beach may be hazardous for health

Thursday - Apr 12, 2012, 02:15pm (GMT+5.5)
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Washington -  On warm days, the beach seems an ideal destination for family vacation.

But experts have warned that beach sand could pose a health risk for beachgoers. They say sand can harbour illness-causing microbes.

Unfortunately, there are no guidelines for sand quality at recreational sites.

Now, environmental scientists at the University of Miami (UM) and at Northern Illinois University have created a reference guide for potentially harmful germs in sand, similar to the  guidelines set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for marine water.

“These values can be used by beach managers to make decisions concerning sand quality,” said Helena Solo-Gabriele, professor in the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental

Engineering at the UM College of Engineering and principal investigator of this project.

“That way, when regulators are faced with a decision about a potential health risk, there is a guideline available with which to decide whether or not the levels of microbes found in the sand  are cause for concern,” she stated.

Dogs, birds and cats visiting a beach are common sources of bacteria in the sand.

“Exposures to high levels of certain microorganisms could cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, while infectious risks vary in different microorganism,” noted Tomoyuki Shibata,

assistant professor in the Public Health Program and Institute for the Study of the Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, at Northern Illinois University and first author of the study.

The researchers wanted to determine what levels of bacteria, or pathogens, found in beach sand could pose a health risk for beachgoers, explained Solo-Gabriele, who is also Co-PI of the  Oceans and Human Health Center at the UM Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS).

“The environments in the sand and water are very different. The sand provides more protection against the effects of solar radiation, which has a tendency to inactivate microbes in water.

Sand may also protect microbes from predators (other microbes) that are found exclusively in water,” said Solo-Gabriele.

To develop the guidelines, the scientists ran one million simulations of the number of microbes in each gram of sand, the transfer of sand from hand to mouth and the ingestion rate. The

researchers determined the risk of having 19 cases per 1,000 beachgoers--the level used by the EPA for swimming in marine recreational waters.

The team also documented the levels of pathogens found in the sand at Hobie Cat Beach, in Miami. The findings indicate that levels of harmful microbes at the beach site were low, when

compared to the reference levels and therefore safe for beachgoers.

However, studies have shown that children have a higher illness risk than adults from beach and sand exposures. For that reason, the researchers will now focus on studies of kids’ play

behaviour in sand, to better estimate the acceptable levels of microbes that can cause diseases in children.

“Parents of young children don’t need to overreact to our findings and they can reduce their child’s infectious risk by basic hygiene practices such as hand washing before eating or drinking

and taking a shower,” said Shibata.

The report has been published in the American Chemical Society journal Environmental Science and Technology.





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