India has a well developed tax structure. The power to levy taxes and duties is distributed among the three
tiers of Government, in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Constitution. The main taxes/duties that
the Union Government is empowered to levy are:- Income Tax (except tax on agricultural income, which the State
Governments can levy), Customs duties, Central Excise and Sales Tax and Service Tax. The principal taxes levied
by the State Governments are:- Sales Tax (tax on intra-State sale of goods), Stamp Duty (duty on transfer of
property), State Excise (duty on manufacture of alcohol), Land Revenue (levy on land used for
agricultural/non-agricultural purposes), Duty on Entertainment and Tax on Professions & Callings. The Local
Bodies are empowered to levy tax on properties (buildings, etc.), Octroi (tax on entry of goods for use/consumption
within areas of the Local Bodies), Tax on Markets and Tax/User Charges for utilities like water supply,
In the wake of economic reforms, the tax system in India has under gone a radical change, in line with the
liberal policy. Some of the changes include:- rationalization of tax structure; progressive reduction in peak
rates of customs duty; reduction in corporate tax rate; customs duties to be aligned with ASEAN levels;
introduction of value added tax; widening of the tax base; tax laws have been simplified to ensure better
compliance. Tax policy in India provides tax holidays in the form of concessions for various types of investments.
These include incentives to priority sectors and to industries located in special area/ regions. Tax incentives
are available also for those engaged in development of infrastructure.